About neurological conditions
Key neurology facts
Neurological conditions are disorders of the brain, spinal cord or nerves. They can have a range of causes including genetic factors, traumatic injury and infection. The causes of some of these conditions are still not well understood.
There are a large number of neurological conditions, some very common and some are comparatively rare.
Neurological conditions can be grouped into four types:
- Sudden onset – includes stroke, traumatic brain or spinal injury, meningitis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome
- Intermittent – includes epilepsy, migraine, cavernoma
- Progressive – includes Parkinson’s disease, dementia, motor neurone disease, ataxia
- Stable with changing needs – includes Tourette syndrome, narcolepsy, fibromyalgia, transverse myelitis
Having a neurological condition can have a huge impact on an individual’s day to day life
Our 2019 patient experience survey findings show that having a neurological condition has a significant impact on both quality of life, and on the extent to which their condition affects their day to day activities. Of the respondents who rated the impact of their condition on their quality of life, 46% said it impacted them to a great extent, and a further 35% said it impacted them to a moderate extent. Of the respondents who rated the extent to which their condition affects their day to day activities, 42% said it affected them to a great extent, 36% said it affected them to a moderate extent.
For people with intermittent neurological conditions, such as epilepsy or migraine, the unpredictability of their condition can also have a huge impact on their day to day life. The 2013-14 NHS England survey of patients of GP practices found that people with long-term neurological conditions have the lowest health-related quality of life of any long-term condition.
The number of neurological cases is rising and will continue to increase
According to the latest estimates, the total number of neurological cases in England has now reached 16.5 million, or an average of 75,000 cases per Clinical Commissioning Group (Neuro Numbers 2019).
This is due in part to advances in neonatal healthcare meaning more children with neurological conditions survive beyond birth and into adulthood. More significant however is the impact of an ageing population. More significant however is the impact of an ageing population. This is highlighted by Public Health England’s 2018 Neurology Mortality reports which show that number of deaths in England relating to neurological disorders rose by 39% over 13 years, while deaths in the general population fell by 6% over the same period.
Neurological conditions cause a significant amount of NHS activity and spend
- There were 1,654,577 hospital admissions with a mention of neurology, stroke or dementia in 2016/17. This is a 24% increase over the five years to 2016/17 (Hospital Activity Compendium).
- There were 1,009,021 emergency admissions with a mention of neurology, stroke or dementia in 2016/17. This is a 21% increase over the five years to 2016/17 (Hospital Activity Compendium).
- Neurological conditions (including stroke and dementia) accounted for 12,736,365 bed days in 2016/17 (Hospital Activity Compendium).
- If all CCGs were to achieve the neurological admission rates of their best demographically similar peers, a 10% saving (£50 million) could be achieved (The long term plan for the NHS – getting it right for neurology patients).
- NHS expenditure on neurological conditions alone amounted to £4.4 billion back in 2012/13, which is the latest published data available (Neuro Numbers 2019). This excludes any social care or voluntary sector spend, for which data is currently unavailable.
- Social care expenditure on care services for people with a neurological condition amounted to approximately £2.4 billion in 2013 – nearly 14% of adult social care spend. More up to date data is not available highlighting just one of the gaps in data about people with neurological conditions.